What are the Rural Sanitation programmes implemented by MoRD?
Government of India had launched Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in the year 1986 with the objective of accelerating sanitation coverage in rural areas. CRSP was restructured in the year 1999 exhibiting a paradigm shift in the approach and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was introduced. At present, TSC is the only rural sanitation programme implemented by Ministry of Rural Development.
What is Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)?
Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was launched in 1999 advocating a shift from high subsidy to a low subsidy regime, greater household involvement, demand responsiveness, and providing for the promotion of a range of toilet options to promote increased affordability. It also gives strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and social marketing for demand generation for sanitation facilities, to set up a delivery system through Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centers (PC) and a thrust on school sanitation. TSC is implemented in a campaign mode-taking district as a unit so that 100 percent saturation in terms of households, Anganwadi and school toilets can be attained which would result in significant health benefits.
Why GOI adopted a shift in policy in Rural Sanitation?
Sanitation was never perceived as a priority especially in rural areas where open space was readily available until today albeit the growth of population and urbanization. GOI launched the first Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986. It hinged on substantial subsidy as a means for for household toilets, which was soon found to be strategically weak. Constructing toilets was a dynamics of need, an understanding of its importance, financial capability and availability of hardware and skilled masons. Of the sanitary pour-flush toilets constructed in the decade of the eighties and nineties, less than 50% were found in use due to many reasons i.e. lack of awareness, poor construction standards, emphasis on high cost designs, absence of participation on the part of beneficiaries, etc. The CRSP had also neglected school sanitation, which is considered as one of the vital components of sanitation. Also, CRSP failed to have a linkage with various local institutions like ICDS, Mahila Samakhya, women, PRIs, NGOs, research institutions, SHGs, etc. Realizing weaknesses in CRSP, various experiments were carried out in the country. With the assistance of Rama Krishna Mission Lok Shiksha Parishad (RKMLSP), Narenderpur, West Bengal and UNICEF, one such experiment was made in Midnapur district of West Bengal where approximately 800,000 toilets were constructed by the rural people without any subsidy from Central or State Government. This successful model later on became the basis for revamping the Central Rural Sanitation Programme. In addition, a Baseline Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in rural water supply and sanitation was conducted during 1996-97 by the Indian Institute of Mass Communication, which showed that 55% of those with private latrines were self-motivated. Only 2% of the respondents claimed the existence of subsidy as a motivating factor.
What are the main features of the new policy?
GOI launched reform initiatives in the rural sanitation sector in 1999 by introducing a demand driven, participatory, people centered programme called Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which is being implemented in a campaign mode, taking district as a unit. TSC follows a paradigm shift in approach from an allocation based and supply driven programme to a demand driven programme, from a top down to a participatory approach, from a high to low subsidy regime; and more importantly, it tries to generate a campaign in the entire district to highlight issues related to sanitation by involving all stakeholders.
What are the objectives of TSC?
The main objectives of TSC are
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in the rural areas
- Generate demand for sanitary facilities through awareness and health education
- Cover all schools and Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene behaviour among students and teachers
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technology development and application
- Endeavor to reduce water and sanitation related diseases.
- Eliminate the practice of mannual scavenging and convert all dry latrines into sanitary pour flush latrines.
What are the principles of TSC?
The entire effort of the TSC is to make the programme 'community led' and 'people centered' with increased stress on awareness creation and demand generation from the people for sanitary facilities in houses, schools and Anganwadis. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. TSC rests on the following principles: Low to no subsidy: Sanitation is way of life and should be practiced and owned by people. Recent studies show that subsidy is not a motivating factor for owning sanitary facilities. If awareness is created, people are ready to pay for acquiring such facilities. Focus on awareness generation (IEC): An informed and sensitized effort ensures the acceptability of sanitation facilities. The creative and extensive use of IEC has been taken as the key to mobilize community and create awareness on sanitation issues as well as generate demand for sanitation facilities under TSC. Community centered approach: Acceptability and community participation are related. TSC lays heavy emphasis on community participation for greater ownership of the programme. TSC ensures community participation at all levels of planning, management and maintenance. Demand responsive approach: TSC is not a target oriented or a supply driven program and, emphasizes on demand generation through social mobilization for sanitary facilities in houses & schools. Supply chain: TSC intends to develop alternate delivery mechanisms to meet community needs by providing for stronger back up systems such as trained masons and building materials through rural sanitary marts and production centers. The RSMs (see components) are serving as outreach institutions to disseminate information, stimulate demand through motivators and solicit from households for sanitary toilets. School Sanitation and Hygiene Education: Rural School Sanitation has been conceptualized as an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people by providing water and sanitation facilities in the schools/Aganwadis and, promoting the desired behavioural changes by imparting hygiene education, linking the same to home & community. Involvement of PRIs and NGOs: Decentralized institutional structure is the key to sustainability. As per the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule. Accordingly, Panchayats have the pivotal role in the implementation of the Total Sanitation Campaign with VO/ NGOs/ to mobilize for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. They have the main responsibility in the O&M of the common facilities created. Panchayats can also contribute from their own resources for School Sanitation. Panchayats and NGOs can also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts. NGOs are also actively involved in IEC activities as well as in hardware activities.
Who can implement TSC at the district level?
The TSC is being implemented in the districts of the States/UTs with support from the GOI and the respective State/UT Governments. The States/UTs draw up a TSC Project for the select districts to claim GOI assistance. Selection of districts is to be done by the respective State/UT Governments. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. In case, Zila Panchayat is not functional, District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) can implement the TSC. Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of the TSC. Opposite diagram indicates the roles and responsibility of different institutions.
What is the role of PRI in TSC implementation?
As per the 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule and is the responsibility of the panchayat. At the district level, Zila Panchayat implements the project. Similarly, at the block and the Panchayat levels, Panchayat Samiti and respective Gram Panchayats are involved in the implementation of TSC. Gram Panchayats have the pivotal role in the implementation of the Total Sanitation Campaign with VO/ NGOs/ to mobilize for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean environment by way of safe disposal of wastes. They have the main responsibility in the O&M of the common facilities constructed. Panchayats can also contribute from their own resources for School and Anganwadi Sanitation. Panchayats may also open and operate the Production Centres/Rural Sanitary Marts.
What is the role of NGOs in TSC implementation?
NGOs have an important role in the implementation of TSC in the rural areas. They may be involved in IEC activities as well as in setting up PCs or RSMs.. Their services are required to be utilized not only for bringing about awareness among the rural people for the need of rural sanitation but also ensuring that they actually make use of the sanitary latrines. NGOs may also open and operate Production Centres and Rural Sanitary Marts. However, only, dedicated and motivated NGOs should be involved in TSC implementation.