Total Sanitation Campaign:
Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Prevailing High Infant Mortality Rate is also largely attributed to poor sanitation. It was in this context that the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was launched in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.
The concept of sanitation was earlier limited to disposal of human excreta by cess pools, open ditches, pit latrines, bucket system, etc. Today it connotes a comprehensive concept, which includes liquid and solid waste disposal, food hygiene, personal, domestic as well as environmental hygiene. Proper sanitation is important not only from the general health point of view but it has a vital role to play in our individual and social life too. Sanitation is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development index. Good sanitary practices prevent contamination of water and soil and thereby prevent diseases. The concept of sanitation was, therefore, expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal.
Total Sanitation Campaign is a comprehensive programme to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with broader goal to eradicate the practice of open defecation. TSC as a part of reform principles was initiated in 1999 when Central Rural Sanitation Programme was restructured making it demand driven and people centered. It follows a principle of "low to no subsidy" where a nominal subsidy in the form of incentive is given to rural poor households for construction of toilets. TSC gives strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Capacity Building and Hygiene Education for effective behaviour change with involvement of PRIs, CBOs, and NGOs etc. The key intervention areas are Individual household latrines (IHHL), School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE), Community Sanitary Complex, Anganwadi toilets supported by Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centers (PCs). The main goal of the GOI is to eradicate the practice of open defecation by 2010. To give fillip to this endeavor, GOI has launched Nirmal Gram Puraskar to recognize the efforts in terms of cash awards for fully covered PRIs and those individuals and institutions who have contributed significantly in ensuring full sanitation coverage in their area of operation.
A comprehensive Baseline Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in rural water supply and sanitation was conducted during 1996-97 under the aegis of the Indian Institute of Mass Communication, which showed that 55% of those with private latrines were self-motivated. Only 2% of the respondents claimed the existence of subsidy as the major motivating factor, while 54% claimed to have gone in for sanitary latrines due to convenience and privacy. The study also showed that 51% of the respondents were willing to spend up to Rs.1000/- to acquire sanitary toilets.
The project is being implemented in rural areas taking district as a unit of implementation. The Programme is being implemented with focus on community-led and people centred initiatives. Children play an effective role in absorbing and popularising new ideas and concepts. This Programme, therefore, intends to tap their potential as the most persuasive advocates of good sanitation practices in their own house-holds and in schools. The aim is also to provide separate urinals/toilets for boys and girls in all the schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas in the country.
The main objectives of the TSC are as under:
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.
- Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
- Cover schools/ Anganwadis in rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation.
- Eliminate open defecation to minimize risk of contamination of drinking water sources and food.
- Convert dry latrines to pour flush latrines, and eliminate manual scavenging practice, wherever in existence in rural areas.
Online Progress Monitoring system:
|State name||Total household||Household without toilet||Total HH in TSC (including census with tit)||Total H. including census 2001||% Ach. Against Census 2001||%Ach. Against TSC+Census||Total projected HH in 2008||%Ach against Projected HH in 2008||School toilet||Toilet for Balwadi|
Physical Progress Report as per information received upto 27-08-2010:
|Sr.||State name||Project Objectives||Project Performance|
|IHHL BPL||IHHL APL||IHHL Total||San. Comp||School toilets||Bal. Tits||RSM||PC||IHHL||IHHL APL||IHHL Total||San. Comp||School toilets||Bal. Tits||RSM||PC|